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Kamis, 14 Oktober 2010


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SU-30 aircraft is a twin engine, twin seater, multi-role fighter that can simultaneously be operated as an intercepter, bomber and trainer. It is capable of attaining a maximum speed of two Mach with a maximum climb rate of 270 metres per second. The Su-30MK is equipped by the latest radars designed by Indian specialists and with the Akash air-to-air missile. The Sukhoi-30 can be modified into a naval version, if the Indian Government chose to deploy it on an aircraft carrier.

Codenamed `Flanker' by NATO, the twin-seat SU-30, a derivative of the Su-27, is a multi-role fighter bomber and air superiority aircraft which can also be used in the maritime strike role. The Flanker has and operational radius of around 1500 km, and are equipped with an inflight refuelling facility extending their radius by another 500 km.

The Mirage-2000-5 and the SU-30K were the two aircraft that were considered to be feasible alternatives to replace obsolescent aircraft that the Air Force planned to phase out. While both aircraft were still under development, the Mirage-2000-5 was designed ab initio as a multi-role aircraft with identified avionics systems and weaponry. The SU-30K on the other hand was designed only for an air defence role.

The Ministry selected the SU-30K on the grounds that after upgradation into a multi-role aircraft (to be designated SU-30MK) it would still be cheaper than the Mirage-2000-5 and also have superior capabilities in terms of range and the load delivery. It should be noted, however, that the relative superiority of the SU-30MK was based on assumptions that certain avionics systems which were only conceptualised at that stage, would be successfully designed/developed in India and others would be imported from Western sources and then integrated into the SU-30K in order to enhance its capabilities, from a purely air defence role to multi-role capabilities.

The shortcomings of the SU-30K arose from the fact that it was designed and optimised for an air defence role. Their electronic warfare system was unsuitable to meet the Indian threat environment and the radar performance was below expectation. The navigation system lacked accuracy, very limited capability existed for accurate weapon delivery and weapon system controls were poorly integrated. Although, the aircraft was capable of a large weapon load, the air to ground armament did not include any precision guided munitions, a key requirement during the Kargil Operation.

On account of the large size and range of the aircraft, it was difficult for the aircraft to survive against threat of modern air defence weapon systems unless its avionics, radar and electronic warfare systems were upgraded and well integrated.

The Su-30MKI version was designed for India. The forward facing NIIP N011M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated Passive Electronically Scanned Array [PESA] radar. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar. The N011M can function in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneously while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial or GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. N011M has a 350 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere. The radar can track 15 air targets and engage the 4 most dangerous simultaneously. These targets can even include cruise missiles and motionless helicopters. The Su-30MKI can function as a mini-AWACS as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to at least 4 other aircraft. The radar can detect ground targets such as tanks at 40–50 km. It is speculated that the passive phased array Radar Irbis-E may be added to the fighter jet by 2010, when the first totally Indian-built Su-30MKI will roll out from HAL Nasik.

Cope India 2004 caused uproar inside DoD and in Washington. The IAF did not fly its top-end Su-30MKI aircrafts, instead the older un-upgraded Su-30MKs and Su-30Ks. The Cope India exercises seemed to reflect badly on the US F-15 and F-16 fighters when facing the Su-30. Rep. Duke Cunningham (R-CA) said in a Feb. 26 House Appropriations defense subcommittee hearing that U.S. F-15Cs were defeated more than 90 percent of the time in direct combat exercises against the IAF. But according to Aviation Week and Space Technology, [April 10, 2004] "Two major factors stand out: None of the six 3rd Wing F-15Cs was equipped with the newest long-range, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars. These Raytheon APG-63(V)2 radars were designed to find small and stealthy targets. At India's request, the U.S. agreed to mock combat at 3-to-1 odds and without the use of simulated long-range, radar-guided AIM-120 Amraams that even the odds with beyond-visual-range kills."

In the Red Flag 2008 exercise, the F-15 and F-16 "dominated" the Su-30. The Su-30 doesn't begin to approach the F-22 Raptor, and the upgraded F-15C Eagles with AESA radar may also prove superior. In the Red Flag 2008 jamming between aircraft nullified radar-guided missiles and allowed the aircraft to come into the merge. The Indians tried to use their "air show tricks", but the US pilots used the tactics they had developed to move in behind the Flankers when they started "sinking" and to quote a pilot, "drill their brains out with guns".

The first indigenously built Sukhoi SU-30MKI was inducted into the Air Force in March 2005. The aircraft assembled at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Ozhar near Nashik rolled out in November 2004. It was the first of the 140 aircraft proposed to be built in India under Russian license. In 2006 the Government asked Hindustan Aeronautics Limited to step up production of Su-30 from 8 to 12 aircraft per year and deliver all the 140 Sukhois in 2014, four years ahead of the original 2018 deadline. As of 2008 India had about 48 Su-30 aircraft on hand. A production rate of 12 aircraft per year over six years would another 72 aircraft, for a total of about 120 aircraft, roughly the 140 aircraft projected in 2006, more or less. In October 2008 Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal, Fali Homi Major assured that a total of 230 of the platforms would join the fleet by 2014, with Hindustan Aeronautical Limited (HAL) trying to speed up licensed production of the aircraft. As of early 2009 India intended to manufacture a minimum of 140 Su-30MKI fighters by 2014 under a Russian license with full technology transfer rights, enough for roughly 8 squadrons, each of 16 combat aircraft and 2 trainers. While a total of 230 aircraft are expected to be in service by the year 2020, HAL would have to increase the annual production rate from 12 aircraft per year to 24 per year, and there is no indication that this ramp up has in fact happened.


Su-30 Specifications
 Su-30KN SU-30MK
T-O weight (normal/max), kg 24780 / 30450 24900/34500
Fuel reserve, spec. weight 0.785 g/ (normal/max), kg 5270 / 9400 5270/9640
Max landing weight, kg 21000
Max flight range with internal fuel reserve, km 3000 3000
Max flight range with one in-flight refuelling, km 5200 5200
Max T-O run at normal T-O weight (afterburner), m 550
Max landing run at normal landing weight, with drag parachute, m 750
Service ceiling, m 16700 17300
Load factor limit, g 8 9
Length 21,9 21,9
Wing span 14,7 14,7
Height 6,4 6,4

Weaponry Options
Built-in gun 150 rounds GSh-301 with 150 rounds
Air-to-air missiles, pcs :
- R-27R1 (ER1) up to 6 up to 6
- R-27P (EP) up to 2
- R-27T1 (ET1) up to 2 up to 2
- R-73E up to 6 up to 6
- RVV-AE up to 6 up to 6
Air-to-surface missiles, pcs :
- Kh-31P, Kh-31A up to 4 up to 6
- Kh-29T (TE) up to 4 up to 6
- Kh-29L up to 6
- Kh-59ME up to 2 up to 2
Guided aerial bombs, pcs :
- KAB 500KR (OD) 2 up to 6
- KAB-1500KR 4 up to 3
Rocket projectiles, pcs :
- S-8KOM, S-8OM, S-8BM in B-8M1 launching pods up to 20 x 4 up to 20x4
- S-13 in B-13L launching pods up to 5 x 4 up to 5x4
- S-25 OFM in PU-0-25 launching pods up to 4 up to 4
Aerial bombs, pcs :
- FAB-500T up to 8 up to 8
- BETAB-500ShP up to 8 up to 8
- ODAB-500PM up to 8 up to 8
- OFAB-250-270 up to 28 up to 28
- OFAB-100-120 up to 32 up to 32
- P-50T up to 32 up to 32
Incendiary tanks, pcs :
- ZB-500PT up to 8 up to 8
Bomb clusters, pcs :
- RBK-500 SPBE-D bomb clusters up to 6 up to 8

Senin, 11 Oktober 2010


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Kamis, 07 Oktober 2010

Bokong Besar Pertanda Jantung Sehat

VIVAnews - Memiliki bokong besar bukan sekadar menampilkan kesan seksi. Studi terbaru mengungkap, timbunan lemak di bagian bokong dan paha dapat meningkatkan harapan hidup pemiliknya.
Berdasar studi yang dilakukan sejumlah pakar kesehatan dari Mayo Clinic, di Rochester, Minnesota, lemak yang terakumulasi di bokong dan pangkal kaki bagian atas justru mengurangi risiko penyakit jantung, stroke, dan diabetes. Tidak seperti lemak di perut yang meningkatkan risiko tiga penyakit tersebut.
Tim peneliti yang dipimpin Dr Michael Jensen melibatkan 28 pria dan wanita sebagai partisipan. Selama delapan minggu, mereka memberi perlakuan dan pola makan yang sama terhadap seluruh partisipan. Mereka ingin melihat pertumbuhan lemak di tubuh para partisipan.
Mayoritas partisipan memiliki lemak sekitar 2,45 kg di bagian tubuh atas seperti perut dan dada. Sementara di bagian tubuh bawah seperti bokong, pinggul, dan paha sekitar 1,5 kg. Pengukuran ini dilakukan sebelum dan setelah 'masa karantina'.
Dalam penelitian terungkap, ada perbedaan sel-sel lemak yang melilit bagian tubuh atas dan bawah. Sel-sel lemak di bagian tubuh bawah mengandung agen anti-inflamasi alami yang dapat menghentikan penyumbatan arteri.
Seperti dikutip dari Daily Mail, Jensen mengatakan, temuan ini menantangnya untuk mencari cara meningkatkan produksi lemak di bagian tubuh bagian bawah tanpa menambah timbunan lemak di bagian tubuh bagian atas. "Ini penting untuk membentuk perlindungan tubuh dan membantu mencegah penyakit."
Temuan yang dipublikasikan pada Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences mungkin bisa menjelaskan manfaat memiliki tubuh berbentuk buah pir. (pet)

Kamis, 30 September 2010


nama  : m.muchlis a.
nim    : 08.10802.00004
semester : 5a pagi

1.Pertama buka file master XAMPP anda , kemudian klik file tersebut

2.Rubah bahasa menjadi bahasa Indonesia agar mempermudah anda dalam proses penginstalan XAMPP.

3.Setelah itu akan muncul kotak dialog setup XAMPP , kemudian pilih maju

4.Pilih lokasi dimana program XAMPP akan diinstal,biasanya diletakan kedalam C/Program File/xampp

5.Kemudian pilih install, tunggu beberapa saat sampai proses instalasi selesai.
6.Dalam proses instalasi akan muncul kotak dialog dari dosprompt, seperti berikut :

7.Biarkan saja kotak dialog tersebut akan hilang sendiri dan akan muncul kotak dialog berikutnya :

8.Setelah muncul kotak dialog seperti gambar di atas pilih selesai, maka akan muncul kotak                                dialog      untuk   menginstal XAMPP server

9  .       Kemudian pilih yes agar server terinstal. Maka semua proses menginstal XAMPP sudah selesai.
10. Periksalah apakah program XAMPP dapat berjalan, caranya lihat dari  start>program>appachefriends>xampp pilih Control XAMPP server panel                                    

11.Maka akan tampil jendela seperti berikut :

12.Kemudian aturlah sesuai dengan kebutuhan anda.

blogg yang sejennis yang bersangkuta dengan tugas pemrograman web  klick di bawah sini :

1. nofail rifqi  
2.bagus budi irwan
3.hajar ardanianto
5.samsul arifin
19.citra kurnia aprilla sari
20.fenny puspita sari
21.Dani firnasari

Rabu, 29 September 2010

AK-47 (AKMS)

Caliber 7.62x39 mm
Action: Gas operated, rotating bolt with 2 lugs
Overall length: 870 mm
Barrel length: 415 mm
Weight, with empty magazine: AK 4,3 kg; AKM 3,14 kg
Magazine capacity 30 rounds (40 rounds box magazines and 75 rounds drums from RPK also may be used)
Cyclic rate of fire 600 rounds per minute
The Kalashnikov assault rifle, also known to the West as the AK-47 (Avtomat Kalashnikova - 47, Kalashnikov automatic rifle, model of 1947), and its derivatives, also known under the common name of AK, is the most prolific small arm of the 2nd half of the XX century. It had been and still is (in more or less modified form) manufactured in dozens of countries, and used in hundreds of countries and conflicts since its introduction. The total number of the AK-type rifles made worldwide during the last 60 years is estimated at 90+ millions. This is a true legendary weapon, known for its extreme ruggedness, simplicity of operation and maintenance, and unsurpassed reliability even in worst conditions possible. It is used not only as a military weapon, but also as a platform for numerous sporting civilian rifles and shotguns (see Saiga semiautomatic shotguns, for example). The AK is an amalgam of previously known features and solutions, combined in the most effective way. The effectiveness, however, depends on the criteria used to measure it, and the key criteria for any and every Soviet and Russian military arm are: Reliability, Simplicity of operation and maintenance, Suitability for mass production. There never was any significant demand for good ergonomics or superb accuracy, though.
The true story of AK began late in 1942, when Soviet troops captured several specimen of the very new German MKb.42(H) machine carbine (assault rifle), along with some 7.92 Kurz ammunition. By mid-1943 the MKb.42(H) along with US-supplied M1 carbine were evaluated by Soviet experts, and it was decided on top level that similar weapons, firing the intermediate power cartridge, must be developed for Soviet army as soon as possible. The task of initial development of new ammunition was accomplished in rather short time. By November 1943 technical specifications for the 7.62x41mm cartridge, having bottlenecked, rimless case and firing 8-gram pointed bullet, were sent out to all Soviet small arms design bureaus and organizations. By the spring of 1944, there were at least ten designs of automatic weapons in the works (not counting semi-automatic carbines that resulted in adoption of SKS and bolt-action carbines that went nowhere). In mid-1944, trials commission selected the AS-44 assault rifle, designed by Sudaev, as the overall best, and ordered a limited production run for troops trials. Some AS-44 rifles were manufactured in spring of 1945, and these were evaluated by troops in summer of 1945, just after the Victory in Europe. Troops generally liked the AS-44, as it has longer effective range compared to PPSh-41 submachine gun, and provided better accuracy in semi-automatic fire. The problem was that AS-44 was overly heavy (more than 5 kg empty), and trials commission ordered next round of development and trials, which started early in 1946.
Enter Mikhail Kalashnikov, the young sergeant of Soviet tank forces, who, after being wounded in combat in 1942, designed a prototype submachine gun while on medical leave. His first weapon was rejected on the grounds of complexity, but the designer himself was assigned to the Red Army's Small Arms and Mortar Research & Proving ground (NIPSMVO) near the Moscow to continue his education and work on other weapons. Here Kalashnikov designed a semi-automatic carbine, heavily influenced by American M1 Garand rifle. This carbine, while not successful by itself, served as a starting point for the first Kalashnikov's assault rifle, provisionally known as AK No.1 or AK-46. In November of 1946 the AK-46 project was chosen for prototype manufacture along with 5 other projects (out of 16 submitted to commission), and Kalashnikov was sent to the city of Kovrov (also not far from the Moscow), to manufacture his weapon at the small arms factory there. The AK-46 was gas operated, rotary bolt weapon that utilized short-stroke gas piston above the barrel, and two-part receiver with separate trigger unit housing and dual controls (separate safety and fire selector switches on the left side of the trigger unit).
In December 1946 new assault rifles were tested at NIPSMVO range, with AS-44 being used as a control (its development has ceased earlier in 1946 due to untimely death of the Sudaev, who was severely ill by the 1945). As an initial result of these tests, the AK-46 was selected for further development by trials commission, with two more weapons selected for further evolution being rifles from designers Dementiev and Bulkin. The second round of trials, which included three weapons (AK-46 by Kalashnikov, AB-46 by Bulkin and AD by Dementiev), resulted in rejection of the improved AK-46, which was inferior to other rivals in many aspects. Despite that failure, Kalashnikov, using his contacts and support from some member of trials commission (whom he knew from his earlier work at NIPSMVO in 1943-46) pursued the head of the trials commission to review the results, and finally got a green light to continue his development for next round of trials. Following the technical failure of the AK-46, Kalashnikov and his companion designer Zaitsev (who was a staff weapons designer at Kovrov plant) decided to completely rework the design, using successful technical solutions borrowed from various weapons, including direct competitors. For example, the long-stroke gas piston, attached to the bolt carrier, along with captive return spring assembly and receiver cover were apparently inspired by Bulkin's AB-46 rifle; the idea of large clearances between bolt group and receiver walls, with minimum friction surfaces, was inspired by the Sudaev's AS-44, the safety / dust cover lever was copied from Browning designed Remington model 8 hunting rifle etc.
It must be noted here, that such copying and borrowing of ideas was actually encouraged by the trials commission (and the whole Soviet ideology), as all intellectual property in USSR was considered to be property of 'the people', or the state. Thus, any state-owned intellectual property could (and must) have been used to the benefit of the people / the state by anyone. And creating a new, most effective assault rifle for the victorious Soviet army was certainly on the top of the list of things, beneficial for the Soviet state at the time.
After extensive tests, conducted in December 1947 - January 1948, which included slightly improved Dementiev KB-P-410, Bulkin TKB-415 and all-new Kalashnikov AK-47 rifles, results were somewhat inconclusive. The AK-47 was found to be most durable and reliable out of three contestants, but it also dragged behind the other two in the accuracy department, especially in full automatic (which was, and still is considered the primary mode of fire for assault rifle in Russia). In fact, the only weapon that fulfilled accuracy requirements was the Bulkin AB-47 / TKB-415, but it had certain problems with parts durability. After lengthy discussion, trials commission finally decided that the better is the enemy of the good, and it is advisable to have not-so accurate but reliable weapon now, rather than to wait indefinitely for accurate-and -reliable weapon in the future. This decision ultimately lead commission to recommend AK-47 for troops trials in November, 1947. It was decided that the production of the new weapon must be commenced at Izhevsk arms plant (now Izhevsk Machine building Plant or IzhMash in short). Kalashnikov has moved from Kovrov to Izhevsk to help with production of the new weapon, which commenced in mid-1948. Official adoption followed late in 1949, with standard nomenclature being '7.62mm avtomat Kalashnikova AK' (7.62mm automatic carbine Kalashnikov). At the same time, a folding buttstock version was adopted for airborne units use, as '7.62mm avtomat Kalashnikova skladnoy AKS' (7.62mm automatic carbine Kalashnikov, folding).
It must be noted that the original design of the receiver, which was assembled from stamped steel 'box' with large machined steel insert pinned at the front, caused a lot of troubles at factory. The technology (equipment and labor) level of the time resulted in extremely high percentage of rejected receivers due to misformed walls, improper pinning of parts, bad geometry etc. After critical revision of the process at the factory it was calculated that it will be more economically feasible to return to the 'old-school' machined receivers. New, machined receiver was designed by one of factory's staff designers, and after approval by military, it was put into production at IzhMash in 1951, under the same basic designation.
Through the following years, design of AK incorporated many minor changes and updates, but it was the experimental Korobov TKB-517 assault rifle (tested by Soviet army in mid-fifties) that spurred further development of AK. The Korobov TKB-517 assault rifle was a great deal lighter than AK, about 1/3 cheaper to manufacture, and significantly more accurate in full automatic fire. This lead the Soviet army to issue new requirements for a lighter and more effective assault rifle, which were formulated in 1955. These requirements were also complemented by requirement for a companion squad automatic / light support weapon (light machine gun in Russian nomenclature). Trials for new weapons were held in 1957-58. Kalashnikov team from Izhevsk submitted an improved AK with new type of stamped receiver and other minor improvements, which competed against a number of weapons from other design teams from the Kovrov and Tula. In technical terms, the Kalashnikov entry fared about average in these trials, with certain rival weapons proving to be more combat-effective and less expensive to make. The trials commission, however, decided again that the better is the enemy of the good, and recommended the improved AK for adoption due to its proven performance and familiarity to the industry and troops. It was officially adopted in 1959 as the AKM ( Avtomat Kalashnikova Modernizirovannyj - Kalashnikov Automatic rifle, Modified) along with companion RPK squad automatic weapon / light machine gun.
The key changes in AKM, as compared to AK, were the introduction of the stamped steel receiver instead of the milled one, and improved trigger/hammer unit, with added hammer release delay device (often incorrectly referred as a rate reducer). Other changes were the redesigned, slightly raised buttstock and the pistol grip, and the addition of the removable muzzle flip compensator. This spoon-like compensator is screwed onto the muzzle and utilized the muzzle blast to reduce muzzle climb during the automatic fire. The compensator could be replaced by the screw-on "PBS-1 noiseless firing device", generally known as a silencer. This silencer requires a special, sub-sonic ammunition with heavier bullets to be used. Another change from AK to AKM was a slightly improved rear sight, with settings from 100 to 1000 (instead of the 800 on AK) meters. Both 800 and 1000 meters, however, are way too optimistic for any practical use, since the effective fire is limited roughly to 300-400 meters, if not less.
In the 1974, Soviet Army officially adopted the 5.45mm ammunition and the appropriately chambered AK-74 assault rifle as its new standard shoulder arm. The AKM, however, was never officially declared obsolete and removed from service, and is still in Russian army stocks. Some non-infantry units of the Russian Army are still armed with 1960s vintage AKM assault rifles. There's also an increasing interest in the 7.62mm weapons since many troops were disappointed by the effectiveness of the 5.45mm ammo during the local conflicts in the 1990s. Some Russian special forces troops (mostly police and Internal Affairs Ministry), currently operating in Chechnya, are using the venerable 7.62mm AKM rifles.
The AK and AKM rifles were widely exported to the pro-Soviet countries and regimes all around the world. Manufacturing licenses along with all necessary technical data packages were transferred (for free or at nominal fee) to many Warsaw Pact countries (Albania, Bulgaria, China, East Germany, Hungary, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia). Certain 'non-communist', but friendly countries, such as Egypt, Finland and Iraq, also received manufacturing licenses.
At the present time, despite the world-wide proliferation of the small-bore (5.56 / 5.45mm) weapons, many companies still manufacture 7.62mm assault rifles for military or police use (for example, there's an AK-103, made in limited numbers by the IZHMASH in Russia). Also, production of the semi-automatic only civilian AK derivatives is continued in many countries, including Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, China and others.
Technical description for the AKM assault rifle:
The AKM is a gas operated, selective fire assault rifle.
The gas operated action has a massive bolt carrier with a permanently attached long stroke gas piston. The gas chamber is located above the barrel. The bolt carrier rides on the two rails, formed on the receiver walls, with the significant clearances between the moving and stationary parts, which allows the gun to operate even when its interior is severely fouled with sand or mud. The rotating bolt has two massive lugs that lock into the receiver. Bolt is so designed that on the unlocking rotation it also makes a primary extraction movement to the fired case. This results in very positive and reliable extraction even with dirty chamber and cases. The rotation of the bolt is ensured by the curved cam track, machined in the bolt carrier, and by the appropriate stud on the bolt itself. The return spring and a spring guide are located behind the gas piston and are partially hidden in its hollow rear part when bolt is in battery. The return spring base also serves as a receiver cover lock. The cocking handle is permanently attached to the bolt carrier (in fact, it forms a single machined steel unit with carrier), and does reciprocate when gun is fired.
The receiver of the AKM is made from the stamped sheet steel, with machined steel inserts riveted into the place where required. Earliest AK-47 receivers were also made from the stamped and machined parts, riveted together, but this soon proved to be unsatisfactory, and most of the AK (made between 1951 and 1959) rifles were made with completely machined receivers. The receiver cover is a stamped sheet metal part, with stamped strengthening ribs found on the AKM covers.
The relatively simple trigger/hammer mechanism is loosely based on the 1900's period Browning deigns (much like the most other modern assault rifles), and features a hammer with two sears - one main, mounted on the trigger extension, and one for the semi-automatic fire, that intercepts the hammer in the cocking position after the shot is fired and until the trigger is released. Additional auto sear is used to release the hammer in full auto mode. The AKM trigger unit also featured a hammer release delay device, which is served to delay the hammer release in the full auto fire by few microseconds. This does not affects the cyclic rate of fire, but allows the bolt group to settle in the forwardmost position after returning into the battery. The combined safety - fire selector switch of distinctive shape is located on the right side of the receiver. In the "Safe" position (topmost) it locks the bolt group and the trigger, and also served as a dust cover. The middle position is for automatic fire, and the bottom position is for single shots. The safety / fire selector switch is considered by many as the main drawback of the whole AK design, which is not cured in the most of derivatives until now. It is slow, uncomfortable and sometimes stiff to operate (especially when wearing gloves or mittens), and, when actuated, produces a loud and distinctive click. There's no bolt stop device, and the bolt always goes forward when the last shot from the magazine is fired.
AKM is fed from the 30 rounds, stamped steel magazines of heavy, but robust design. Early AK magazines were of slab-sided design, but the more common AKM magazines featured additional stamped ribs on the sides. Positive magazine catch is located just ahead of the trigger guard and solidly locks the magazine into the place. Insertion and the removal of the magazine requires slight rotation of the magazine around its front top corner, that has a solid locking lug. If available and required, a 40 round box magazines of similar design, or the 75 rounds drums (both from the RPK light machine gun) can be used. Late in production plastic magazines of the distinctive reddish color were introduced.
AKM rifles were issued with wooden stocks and pistol handles. Late production AKM rifles had a plastic pistol grip instead of wooden one. The wooden buttstock has a steel buttplate with mousetrap cover, that covers the accessory container in the butt. The AK buttstock are more swept-down than the AKM ones. The folding stock version had been developed for the airborne troops and its had an underfolding steel shoulder stock. These modifications of the AK and AKM were designated the AKS and AKMS, respectively. AK were issued with the detachable knife-bayonets, and the AKM introduced a new pattern of the shorter,  multipurpose knife-bayonet, which can be used in conjunction with its sheath to form a wire-cutter. All AK and AKM rifles were issued with the canvas carrying slings.
The sights of the AKM consist of the hooded front post and the U-notch open rear. Sights are graduated from 100 to 1000 (800 on AK) meters, with an additional "fixed" battle setting that can be used for all ranges up to 300 meters.
AKM rifles also can be fitted with the 40mm GP-25 grenade launchers, that are mounted under the forend and the barrel. Grenade launchers had its own sights on the left side of the unit.

Dragunov SVD Sniper Rifle (USSR/Russia)

 Caliber: 7.62x54R
Operation: gas operated, short stroke, rotating bolt; semi-automatic
Weight: 4.31kg empty with telescope
Length: 1225 mm
Barrel Length: 620 mm
Capacity: 10 round detachable box magazine

Dragunov SVD was designed not as a "standard" sniper rifle in its Western meaning of the term. In fact, main role of the SVD in Soviet / Russian Army is to extend effective range of fire of every infantry squad up to about 600 meters and to provide special fire support. SVD is a lightweight and quite accurate (for it's class) rifle, cabable of semi-auto fire. First request for new sniper rifle was issued in 1958. In 1963 SVD (Snaiperskaya Vintovka Dragunova, or Dragunov Sniper Rifle) was accepted by Soviet Military. SVD can use any kind of standard 7.62x54R ammo, but primary round is specially developed for SVD sniper-grade cartridge with steel-core bullet. Every infantry squad in the Russian (Soviet) army had one man with SVD.
SVD rifle is extremely reliable in all conditions, and designed for heavy use. It has backup adjustable iron sights as a standard option, as well as a bayonet mount (standard AK-47 bayonet type).
Latest modernization incorporate rugged polymer stock. Also, for mounted and airborne troops a special variant was developed with folding buttsock and shortened barrel (590 mm). New flash hider/muzzle brake also installed.
It must be noted that several countries produced SVD copies or look-alikes. Of those, the "true" clones (rifles that have similar internal design) are Iraqui Al Kadesih rifle and Chinese Type 85 (in 7,62x54R) and NDM-86 (in 7,62x51 NATO). Others, such as Romanian Romak FPK or Yugoslavian Zastava M76, are only look-alikes as their internal design is different and usually based on Kalsshnikov AK assault rifle. Russia also produces a civilan version of the SVD, known as "Tigr" (Tiger), in 7,62x54R and 7,62x51 (.308 Win). This usually  has shorter barrel, although it is available in several different versions. Older hunting version of the SVD, the "Medved" (Bear) is no longer produced and is quite scarce.
Dragunov SVD is gas-operated, semi-automatic rifle. It uses short-stroke gas piston, and gas chamber has a two-position manual gas regulator. Barrel is locked by rotating bolt with three lugs. Receiver is machined from steel block. The safety is somewhat reminiscent in its appearance to that of Kalashnikov AK assault rifle, although internal design of the trigger unit is different, and there's no provisions for full automatic fire. Trigger unit is assembled on a separate removable base that also incorporates a trigger guard. The second, smaller lever, located on the right side of receiver behind the safety, is a receiver cover catch, and is sued to disassemble the gun. Standard furniture includes a skeletonized wooden butt and a removable wooden handguard. Late production models may feature polymer handguards and, sometimes, polymer skeletonized butt. The short SVD-S rifle is fitted with separate pistol grip, made of plastic, and a side-folding metallic butt. All SVD rifles are fitted with adjustable open sights, as well as proprietary side rail mount, which will accept telescopic or IR sights on quick-detachable mounts. Standard telescope sight is the 4X fixed magnification PSO-1 with range-finding reticle. SVD rifles also are issued with carrying sling, cleaning kit and other accessories. A standard AK-type bayonet can be installed on the barrel.

Pindad SS2 assault rifle (Indonesia)

SS2-V1 SS2-V2 SS2-V4 SS2-V5
Caliber 5.56x45 mm NATO
Action Gas operated, rotating bolt
Overall length (butt open / folded) 990 / 740 mm 920 / 670 mm 990 / 740 mm 770 / 520 mm
Barrel length 460 mm 403 mm 460 mm 252 mm
Weight 3.4 kg 3.2 kg 4.2 kg 3.2 kg
Rate of fire ~ 700 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity30 rounds

The SS2 family of rifles (from Indonesian "Senapan Serbu 2" - Assault Rifle 2) is manufactured in Indonesia by PT Pindad factory and is based on SS1 (FN FNC) rifle, made by the same factory under license from Belgian company FN Herstal. SS2 rifles are in use by Indonesian army since 2005, and also are offered for export. Initially available in three basic versions (standard rifle SS2-V1, carbine SS2-V2 and para-sniper SS2-V4) it is now also available in subcompact SS2-V5 version, first shown in 2008.
All SS2 rifles share same basic design and same two-part upper / lower receiver construction. Both upper and lower receiver parts are made from aluminum alloy and connected one to another using two cross-pins. Gas-operated action uses long-stroke gas piston, located above the barrel, and a multi-lug rotary bolt that locks into the barrel extension. Charging handle is attached to the bolt carrier on the right side and moves with the bolt group when gun is fired. Fire mode / safety lever is located on the left side of the gun, and permits for single shots and full automatic fire. All versions are fitted with side-folding skeletonized buttstock, and all variants have integral Picatinny type rail on the top of the receiver. In all versions other than SS2-V4 this rail is fitted with removable carrying handle with diopter-type rear sight. Front sight is attached to the gas block, leaving the muzzle part of the barrel unobstructed, so rifle can be used to fire rifle grenades. The SS2-V4 version is issued less front sight base or carrying handle, being fitted with telescope sight and optional cheek rest on the buttstock. SS2-V4 also features heavier barrel for more accurate long-range fire. SS2-V1 and SS2-V2 variants can be fitted with 40mm under-barrel grenade launcher, also made by Pindad.

Colt M4 and M4A1 carbine / assault rifle (USA)

Caliber: 5.56mm NATO
Action: Gas operated, rotating bolt
Overall length: 838 mm (stock extended); 757 mm (stock fully collapsed)
Barrel length: 370 mm
Weight: 2.52 kg without magazine; 3.0 kg with magazine loaded with 30 rounds
Rate of fire: 700 - 950 rounds per minute
Maximum effective range: 360 m
The Colt company developed various carbine versions of the basic AR-15 / M16 rifle since 1970s. These carbines were intended for all markets - military, law enforcement, civilian. US Military (and some other armies, most notably - Israeli Self-Defense Forces) had adopted the Colt CAR-15 Commando and XM-177 carbines during the 1970s and 1980s. But early in 1990s the old idea of replacing the pistols in the hands of the troops with some more effective, shoulder fired weapon, rise again in the heads of the US Military. In fact, this idea can be dated back to the US M1 Carbine of 1941, but good ideas never die. So, in the 1994, US Army adopted the Colt Model 720 selective-fire carbine (basically, a shortened M16A2 rifle), as the US M4 Carbine. This weapon was intended to replace in service some M9 pistols, as well as some aged M3A1 submachine guns and some M16A2 rifles. New weapon was much more handy and comfortable to carry, than the long M16A2 rifle, so the US Special Operations Command (SOCOM) put its eye on the M4 as a possible universal weapon for all Special Operations community. For this purpose M4 was latter modified with the M16A3-style flat-top receiver with integral Picatinny-type accessory rail instead of the M16A2/M4-type integral carrying handle. This modificatin retained the M4 index. The only difference between the M4A1 and M4 is that its trigger unit of M4A1 is modified to fire full-auto instead of the three shots bursts in M4. Specially for the SOCOM M4A1s US Naval Surface Warfare Center developed a SOPMOD M4 kit, that consisted of the M4A1 carbine equipped with Rail Interface System (RIS) instead of the standard handguards. The kit also includes a variety of the add-on goodies, such as various sights (ACOG 4X telescopic, ACOG Reflex red-dot, detachable back-up open sights), laser pointers (visible and infra-red), detachable sound suppressor (silencer), modified M203 40mm grenade launcher (with shortened barrel and improved sights). The kit also included a detachable front grip and tactical light.
At the present time, the M4 carbine is used as a front-line weapon by US Army, Marine Corps and SOCOM operators in Iraq and Afghanistan. Combat experience with thos weapon resulted in update program, which will, as of now (mid-2010) following steps. First, Army wanted to install heavier barrel to allow more sustained firepower, combined with full-automatic mode of fire instead of 3-round burst, and ambidextrous safety/selector switch. Second stage will see improved rail adapter and a new, improved bolt carrier, and a possible third stage will include change of operating system (most probably, from direct gas to the gas piston).
At the present time, the Colt company still is the the prime M4 carbine manufacturer for US Armed forces, but many other companies build similar "milspec" weapons for other US and foreign customers, such as government and private security organizations, law enforcement etc. To name just few, M4-type carbines are manufactured by Bushmaster Firearms, Olympic Arms, THOR Global Defense Group and others

Technical description.
The M4 carbine differs from the M16A2 rifle only by having a shorter barrel and a telescoped, 4-position buttstock. The M4A1 is a similar modification of the M16A3 rifle, so for general technical description please refer to the M16 article on this site.

Rabu, 25 Agustus 2010


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